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This course is meant to give a comfortable and smooth start to your Maths basics, as needed for Physics .

Topics explained :-

1) Graphs and equations that make the graph: get comfortable with graphs of various shapes. learn what is slope and how to find it, irrespective of how complex the graph is.

Basic Types of graphs :- a) straight line graph, b) exponential curves, c) Hyperbolic curves.

Learn what is Maxima and Minima points for curves.

2) Trigonometry :- a) sine, cos and tan. b) example:- sine of a continuously varying angle :- this is applied in physics to a wave equation

3) Integration - what exactly is the physical meaning of Integration.

4) Differentiation - what exactly is the physical meaning of Differentiation . See in terms of a graph, and how does it help us to handle complex graphs made by equations.

1) SI system of Units. Learn the 7 major units corresponding to the 7 Fundamental Quantities in the physical world.

a) Length

b) Mass

c) Time

d) Electric Current

2) Conceptual Difference between Mass and Weight .

3) Parallax error in measurements.

4) Errors in measurements

5) Vernier Caliper, Least Count, and how it is used to measure diameter, width, and depth in a practical machined part.

6) Solved Problems

This course gives you interesting images and animations to explain clearly a number of things :-

1) Displacement versus Distance: what's the difference

2) Types of Motion - a) along a Horizontal / Vertical plane , a straight line motion , b) along a plane, but a zigzag motion, c) circular motion, d) Rolling Motion (as in a tyre) , e) Projectile motion.

3) Equations of Motion

4) Projectile Motion or Parabolic Motion :- two animations show parabolic motion :-

a) Aircraft dropping a food packet for people

b) Basketball throw by a player.

In case (a) , the vertical and horizontal velocity vectors are shown changing dynamically at every instant, to help with the concept of Resultant Vector changing dynamically with time, and therefore the Resultant Flight path of the object . The difference between "g" in vertical direction versus no acceleration in horizontal direction is explained, and is the key to understanding projectile motion.

5) solved problems

1) Force as a vector . See Archimedes principle and Forces acting on a ball submerged inside water

2) Gravitational Forces , such as between any two Masses. Bid case studies are heavenly bodies in space. Example- Earth and Sun, Moon and Earth.

3) Electrostatic or Coulomb forces between electrically charged particles or bodies

4) Normal force and friction force

5) Rope Tension force

6) Spring force

7) Nuclear forces - these act between Protons and Neutrons. Holds a Nucleus of an Atom together.

The other types of forces are also shown in 3D images and solid models . Example: Hydrostatic forces acting on a body submerged in water.

8) Difference between Classical physics and Quantum physics

This course gives a strong foundation to clearly understand Newton's 3 Laws of Motion , and to apply them in practical problems.

1) 1st Law of motion

2) Inertial and Non-Inertial Frames of Reference

3) 2nd Law of motion

4) 3rd law of motion.

5) Block sliding on an Inclined Plane - apply 1st and 2nd Law

6) Normal Reaction - horizontal plane

7) Concept of Action-Reaction pairs

8) Normal Reaction - Inclined plane

9) 3rd law application- Contact forces on a horizontal plane

10) Equation derivation of forces - Block moving on Inclined plane

11) Solved problems

Difference between Interial and Non-Interial Frames

Understanding the concept of "FRAMES of Reference" such as Inertial and Non-Inertial frames is usually difficult but very important. This abstract topic is also covered under the chapter "Rotation" or "Rotational Mechanics".

2) Friction example explained: how it acts when a person is walking

3) Block sliding on a horizontal plane

4) Thermal energy loss due to friction, an irreversible process

5) Friction force and co-efficient of static friction

6) Friction force and co-efficient of Kinetic friction (same as Dynamic friction)

7) Friction case:- Block placed on top of another Block.

8) Friction for a block moving on an Inclined Plane

9) The 4 Laws of Friction

10) Contact forces - for a horizontal plane

11) Frictional forces at atomic level

12) Table of co-efficients of friction numbers for various materials in contact : both Static and Kinetic friction values

13) Rolling friction

14) Friction in liquids/fluids: Viscosity

15) Solved problems

This course makes circular motion easy to grasp and conceptualize.

1) get a feel for circular motion

2) The earth's rotation - a huge circular motion

3) Banking of Tracks - A Car turning around a bend in the road

4) Inertial Frame of Reference - inertial and rotating frames of reference

5) Centripetal force versus Centrifugal force (for this, need to understand Frames of reference)

6) Normal reactions - banked track and un-banked track : resolving Normal Reaction for a car on road

7) Centripetal force: where does it come from?

8) Solved problems

This course explains clearly the concept of Work and Energy :-

1) Get a feel for Work and Energy : animation of a Turbine wheel in a hydraulic dam

2) Work-Energy Theorem: Work and kinetic energy

3) Equation for Work done :- case : animation of a robot pulling a block over a horizontal plane.

4) Work done when Force is constant

5) Work done by Spring : varying force as spring expands or compresses

6) Conservative and Non-conservative forces

7) Potential Energy concept for a Spring

8) Mass-Energy equivalence

9) Solved Problems

Topics covered:-

1) Get a feel for the concept of Momentum and Collisions - practical example of a ball dropped on the floor and rebounding.

2) Center of Mass : what is it

3) Uniform Mass Density

4) Equation derivation of center of mass for a Uniform Straight Rod

5) Linear Momentum and Conservation of Momentum

6) Collisions types : a) Elastic/perfectly elastic, b) Inelastic

7) Elastic Collision: animation of a ball hitting another ball , storing and release of potential energy

8) Collisions -special cases- a) heavy object hits a very light object, b) light object hits a stationary Heavy object

9) Perfectly Inelastic collisions: animation of ball hitting another ball

10) Partly Elastic and Partly Inelastic Collisions

11) Moving Block colliding with a stationary Spring : animation and explanation

12) Co-efficient of Restitution

13) Elastic collision in more than one dimension: animation :- ball falling into spherical cup

14) Solved Problems

Rotation of bodies is usually a complex subject. This course makes things easy using animations and better explanations for the student.

1) Get a feel for Rotational motion : animation of turbine wheel rotating when water falls on it.

2) Rotation about an axis : the importance of knowing the axis of rotation

3) Angular velocity and angular acceleration. Its comparison with equations for Linear velocity and linear acceleration. Examples with pulleys are shown.

4) The main equations of Rotational Kinematics

5) The main equations of Rotational Dynamics : Force, Torque, and radius of action

6) Moment of Inertia: concept and derivation

7) Moment of Inertia: for a rectangular plate: see animation

8) Torque, Angular Acceleration, and Moment of Inertia: see animation

9) Leaning of Bike into a turn

10) Angular Momentum

11) vector directions for Angular Momentum: Right hand Thumb Rule

12) Angular momentum, Moment of Inertia, and Torque: relationship between all these three

13) Conservation of Angular Momentum

14) Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Mass

15) Work Done and Power in Rotational motion

16) Theorems of Moment of Inertia: a) perpendicular axis theorem, b) parallel axis theorem

17) Rolling concept: rotation + translation

18) Rolling with braking

19) Solved Problems

This course gives a clear explanation about the gravitational forces and its impact on the universe. Gravitation is a weak force but a 'long-distance force", it can act over distances of light-years. Animations and images help you to understand the earth’s orbital revolution (rotation) around the sun, and the earth's rotation about its own axis, and other examples of gravitation.

1) Gravitational force is always a force of Attraction, never Repulsion

2) Gravitational pull or attractive force between masses, and gravitational constant.

3) Moon and its role in attracting meteors

4) Universal Law of Gravitation

5) Difference between big 'G' and small 'g'

6) Gravity on Moon and other planets

7) Gravitational Potential

8) Gravitational Field

9) Kepler's Laws of Planetary motion

10) Escape Velocity, and equation derivation

- value and effect of Latitude on escape velocity

- effect of Earth's rotation on escape velocity

11) Black Holes in outer space

12) Gravitational Waves

Several real-life things like springs, pendulums, even waves follow Simple Harmonic Motion. In this course, you can see repeatedly in slow motion, our Animations and Video explanations to get the concepts and equations clear.

1) Introduction: what is Simple Harmonic Motion

Read about Restoring Force and its equation.

2) Displacement, Velocity, and acceleration : the mysterious connection between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple harmonic Motion

3) Simple Pendulum and its equations

4) Simple harmonic motion: Spring and Mass System

5) SHM : case of a single spring connecting two blocks oscillating on a flat Horizontal Plane

6) Damped Harmonic Motion concept : wave damping

7) Damped Oscillations : Equations -- Amplitude reduction with time

This course makes it much easier to understand and remember Fluid Mechanics. Following topics are covered:

1) What is Static pressure, How it varies with depth when a body is immersed inside a liquid.

2) Pascal's Law

3) A Hydraulic Lift: applying and understanding Pascal's Law in real life use

4) Barometer and Atmospheric pressure

5) Manometer and Gas Pressure

6) Archimedes principle

7) Fluid flowing through a pipe: Reynolds number, Lamniar Flow and Turbulent flow

8) Equation of Continuity of Flow

9) Bernoulli's Equation and its derivation

10) Venturi Tube: measuring velocity of flow in a tube.

This course explains a material's innate properties like Elasticity, Strength, stress, strain etc.

Following topics are covered:

1) Introduction to Elasticity

2) Stress

3) Strain

4) Hooke's Law and Young's Modulus of Elasticity

5) Longitudinal stress versus strain graph

6) Work Done and Potential Energy (Elastic Potential energy equation derivation)

7) Practical Experiment to find Young's Modulus

8) Surface Tension in a liquid : adhesion, inter-molecular cohesion, potential energy

> Height of liquid column - equation derivation

9) Surface Tension: case of steel needle floating on water: Equation derivation

10) Parallax Errors in readings due to surface tension

11) Contact Angle: concept and examples > a) water in glass tube, b) mercury in glass tube

12) Cohesion versus Adhesion and Potential Energy for a liquid in a tube

13) Adhesion forces explanation of Contact Angle for cases : a) water in glass tube, b) mercury in glass tube, c) mercury in Copper tube, d) water on paraffin Wax flat plate, e) water in a Silver vessel, f) water on a Lotus Leaf.

14) Capillary tube

15) Capillary action in nature: example of a flower

16) Equation derivation: Height of Capillary in a capillary tube

17) Viscosity : an introduction

18) Velocity gradient concept

19) Co-efficient of viscosity

20) Dimensions of co-efficient of viscosity

21) Bernoulli's Principle: liquid flow

22) Stoke's law and equation

23) Terminal Velocity for object moving through a fluid

24) Stokes method: Practical Experiment to measure co-efficient of viscosity

25) Reynolds number

This course explains about waves and wave equations. Animations show the wave moving which makes it so much easier to understand Wave Theory. Grasp easily the basics such as amplitude, frequency, velocity. A Sonometer and basic principle of a Laboratory experiment is shown, with equation.

1) Feel the wave : an introduction to understanding Circular Motion extending to SHM and wave formation

2) Wave Pulse on a string

3) Sine wave travelling on a string : equations

4) Wave Velocity for a wave travelling along a string in a Longitudinal direction: equation

5) Standing waves: case of string fixed at both ends : equations

6) Failure of bridges and structures due to Standing waves

7) Standing waves: case of string fixed at ONE ends : equations

8) Practical Experiment: Sonometer Apparatus

> The 3 Laws of Trasnverse Vibration of strings

9) Solved problems

Sound waves are both Longitudinal and Transverse , and different from Light waves which are Transverse waves. Learn about sound velocity, amplitude, frequency , pitch . Animations are included to show the sound wave moving .

1) Get a feel for sound waves

2) String Vibrations :

a) Longitudinal vibrations

b) Transverse vibrations

3) Speed of Sound in Solids

4) Speed of Sound in a Gas : Newton's equation and Laplace's Correction

5) Sound: its main defining aspects : a) Pitch and Frequency, b) Intensity and Loudness, c) Quality

6) Standing Waves and Air Columns : equations

a) Pipe closed at one end

b) Pipe open at both ends

7) Beats

8) Doppler Effect and example /cases:-

a) Train moving, person is stationary

b) Train stationary, person moving towards the train

This course explains about light and how it was proved in Young's Double Slit experiment that light must have wave properties.

1) Nature of Light – is it a wave or particle, or both? This is still not decided in the scientific world.

2) More about light waves as Electromagnetic waves, introduction to the Special Theory of Relativity

3) Young's Double-Hole experiment

4) Young's Double Slit experiment

5) Conceptual Difference between Interference and Diffraction

6) Interference due to Thin Films

7) Fresnel's Biprism experiment - Refraction, Interference

> equation derivation

8) Coherent versus Incoherent waves

9) Diffraction of light

10) Practical Experiment : Fraunhofer Diffraction with Circular Hole.

This course shows animations and images to describe the reflection and refraction of light in Mirrors and Lenses.

Following topics are explained in crystal clear fashion to remove doubts and confusions :-

1) Get a feel for Reflections and Refractions : animation of a mirage in a desert

2) Prisms , difference between the words 'Refraction' and 'Dispersion' of light

3) Refraction through a Prism

4) Refraction through a Convex Lens : Ray diagrams

5) Equations for Convex Lens

6) Refraction through a Concave Lens : ray diagrams

7) Reflection from a plane surface or mirror

8) Reflection from a Convex Mirror : Ray diagrams

9) Reflection from a Concave Mirror : Ray diagrams

10) Solved problems

This course makes it really easy to understand Optical instruments.

Summary of topics covered:-

1) Simple Microscope

2) Magnification , Ray Diagram

3) Compound Microscope : animation of movements

> Ray Diagrams : how to draw them

4) Magnification in a Compound Microscope

5) Telescopes and types of telescopes

6) Astronomical Telescopes : 3 types of Astronomical Telescopes

> Ray Diagrams for the three types of Astronomical telescopes

7) Terrestrial Telescopes : Ray diagram

8) Astronomical telescopes: Magnification, Light-gathering ability, and Resolving Power

> Difference between 'Resolving Power' and 'magnification'

> Equation for Resolving Power

9) Terrestrial telescopes : magnification, Light-gathering ability, and Resolving Power

> equation for Resolving Power

10) Solved problems.

This course explains about Dispersive Power of prism materials.

1) Dispersion of white light: concept

2) Dispersive Power

3) Optical Spectrometer

4) Rainbow - an big example of dispersion in nature.

This course explains the great significance of the Speed of light, and how scientists found amazing experimental methods to measure this highest speed in the universe. There is no speed or velocity possible in the Universe higher than the speed of light.

View our animations that show you how the light waves move from source to the very end.

1) The speed of light (or velocity of light)

2) Fizeau method of measurement of speed of light (in the year 1849)

3) Michelson method of measurement of speed of light

Also included is a video about a calculation of Speed of Light mentioned in The Rig Veda, an extremely ancient Indian sacred Text, said to be more than 7000 years old.

This course explains about the light and other radiation, the brightness /luminosity.

1) Get a feel for the words 'Total Radiant Flux' : what is it?

2) Luminosity, Relative Luminosity

3) Light spectrum: Luminosity versus Wavelengths of the seven colours

4) Luminous Efficiency

5) Luminous Intensity

6) Illuminance

7) Inverse Square Law

8) The Photometer , working principle and equations.

This course explains the basics of temperature and Heat- more appropriately to be called Thermal Heat Transfer, another kind of energy.

Topics covered are :

1) Get a feel for Heat (Thermal Energy) versus Temperature

2) Zeroeth Law of Thermodynamics

3) The Temperature Scale and Thermometers

4) Centigrade unit of temperature measurement

5) Farenheit unit of temperature measurement

6) Conversion - Farenheit to Centigrade

7) Ideal Gas Temperature Scale

8) Constant Volume Gas Thermometer

9) Thermal Expansion

This course explains in detail about behaviour of molecules in a gas. Animations and images are included to simulate in slow motion, the motions of molecules inside a gas. The understanding of collisions of molecules against walls of a container helps in understanding gas pressure being a result of many such collisions.

Topics covered are:

1) Kinetic Theory of Gases : it's purpose and assumptions behind it

2) What is an Ideal Gas ? - definition

3) Assumptions behind the Kinetic Theory

4) Pressure and RMS speed : for an ideal gas

5) Kinetic Theory: interpretation of temperature concept, Equations for KE and Temperature in terms of RMS speed

6) Brownian Motion

7) Vapor and Critical Temperature of a gas , Isotherms

8) Evaporation and Kinetic Energy of molecules

9) Dew Point :- Air temperature, and Saturation Vapor Pressure

This course has animations and detailed video explanations to explain heat transfer in a simple visual way.

1) Heat as a form of energy

2) Unit of Heat

3) Basic principle of Calorimetry

4) Specific Heat and Molar Heat Capacity

5) Practical Experiment- Apparatus to find Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice

6) Apparatus to find Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water

7) Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

8) Searle's Cone Apparatus to find the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

This course is so fundamental to the working of our Universe. We have made for you some amazing animations to help you imagine the expansion and compression of a gas with a piston inside a chamber....one of the many things needed to grasp thermodynamics...

The topics covered are:

1) 1st Law of Thermodynamics

2) Work Done by a Gas

3) Isobaric , Isothermal and Adiabatic expansion : equation derivation

4) Heat Engines, equation and efficiency

5) Petrol engine

6) Diesel engine

7) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

8) Entropy

9) Carnot's Theorem and Carnot Engine

10) Efficiency of Carnot Engine cycle

This course describes the specific heat at constant pressure and at constant volume.

1) What is Specific Heat Capacity : example of gas expanding inside a Cylinder

2) Specific Heat at Constant Volume

3) Specific Heat at Constant Pressure

4) Relation between Cp and Cv of Ideal gas

5) Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes

This course describes the types of heat transfer : Conduction, Convection, radiation. .

1) Conduction

2) Thermal Resistance : Rods in Series and Parallel

3) Practical experiment: Searle's Apparatus: measuring Thermal Conductivity

4) Convection

5) Radiation

6) Prevost Thoery of Exchange

7) Blackbody Radiation

8) Kirchoff's law of Radiation

9) Stefan-Boltzmann Law

10) Wein's Displacement Law

11) Newton's Law of Cooling

This subject is difficult usually. This course starts with an image and animation to show electric charges, and goes on to the concept of electric field strength, and electric potential. Just like gravitation, wherever there is a kind of force, there will be energy, so electric potential energy is necessary to understand.

1) What is Electric Charge?

2) The Earth's electric charge

1) Gauss's law, Electric Flux and Electric Field strength

This is a ‘must do’ course for getting a good hang of electronics and electrical . This course includes interesting animations to explain capacitors , what they are , how they work, and a basic DC circuit. (you can find more on AC electrical circuits fitted with capacitor , in a subsequent course - chapter 39.)

1) What is a capacitor all about?

2) 'Capacitance' of a capacitor

3) Parallel Plate and Cylindrical type capacitors

4) Capacitors connected in series

5) Capacitors connected in parallel

6) Energy stored in a capacitor

7) Dielectric materials

8) Force between plates in a parallel plate capacitor

9) Van de Graff Generator

This course includes very important things like Ohm’s law and Kirchoff’s Laws for circuits. Interesting animations help to get a feel of resistances, series and parallel circuits, and circuits with junctions .A section on capacitors charging and discharging, is included here too.

1) Flow of electrons is electric current

2) Thermal Energy generated at a resistor (resistance)

3) Colour bands of resistors

4) Ohm's Law

5) Resistors in series and parallel

This chapter offers you many interesting animations and videos to help understand Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric Current.

1) Joule's Law of Heating

2) Seebeck Effect and Thermocouples

3) Thermoelectric series

4) Neutral and Inversion Temperature

5) Peltier Effect

6) Difference between Peltier heating and Joule heating

7) Thomson Effect

8) Electrolysis

9) Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis

10) Faraday constant

11) Voltameter/ Coulombmeter and types:- a) Copper, b) Silver

This course makes it easy for anyone to get comfortable with the concept of Magnetism by visualising magnetic lines of force in various scenarios. Interesting images and animations videos with accurate explanations makes things less stressful, such as understanding motion of charged particles in a magnetic field .

1) What is a magnetic field ? example of a 3D bar magnet model.

2) Effect of a magnetic field on a charged particle which is moving

3) Magnetic Force 'F' vector and Magnetic Field 'B'

4) Electric Field and Magnetic Field : Frames of Reference

5) Charged particle moving inside a Uniform magnetic Field

6) Magnetic Force on a current carrying wire, exposed to a Magnetic Field

7) Torque on a current carrying wire LOOP (closed loop)

8) Tilting the wire loop

9) Equations for Torque

This course is very important and explains using visual images and animations of magnetic fields setup around a conductor carrying a current flow.

1) Magnetic field around a wire, when you pass current through it. Right Hand Thumb Rule.

2) Right Hand Thumb Rule applied to a Circular Coil

3) Biot-Savart Law

4) Magnetic Field due to current flowing in a straight wire: case 1) long straight wire, Case 2) point on a bisector

5) Force acting between parallel wires when current is passed

> How Ampere is defined in SI units

6) Magnetic Field around a circular coil

a) Field at a a point lying on the axis of the circular coil

b) Field at a point lying very far away but still on the axis of the coil

7) Ampere's Law

8) Solenoid

This course has some deep concepts, which are normally not very obvious. A number of 3D visual images and animations help to grasp the difficult conceptual part quite easily.

1) Bar magnet and its magnetic poles

2) Magnetic Length versus Geometric Length of bar magnets

3) Magnetic Moment of a bar magnet

4) Torque, Work Done, and Energy for a bar magnet placed inside another magnetic field

5) Magnetic Field around a bar magnet

> case 1) at any point along the axis

> case 2) at any point on the perpendicular bisector

This course has some deep concepts on Magnetic Field , which are normally very confusing but we will make things easy for you, with 3D solid model images and animations.

1) Magnetization of materials, Net Dipole Moments, units of magnetization

2) Magnetic Intensity 'H'

3) Magnetic Susceptibility

4) Magnetic permeability of materials

5) Hysterisis - ferromagnetic materials

6) Solved problems

It is an extremely important subject, and is not that easy.This course is about things changing with time in the space where electrical and magnetic fields interact with each other. We have made 3D solid model Images and Animations with videos giving accurate explanations, to make this topic a lot more easy to appreciate.

1) what exactly is 'induction' ?

2) Faraday's laws of Electromagnetic Induction

> magnetic field is changed by doing a switch 'On-OFF'

> Mutual Induction: when a coil is placed side by side with another coil

> Mutual Induction: when a coil is placed below another coil on the same axis

> Mutual Induction: when a Bar Magnet is moved close to a Coil

3) Solenoid placed inside another coil (co-axially)

> Solenoid: what is it?

> Solenoid arrangement - example

4) Mutual Induction: when a Primary Coil is moved inside a Secondary Coil

5) Lenz's Law : Induced Current

6) Induced emf :

a) due to moving the loop,

b) due to changing the magnetic field,

c) due to both - moving loop + changing magnetic field

7) Self-Induction and how is it different from Mutual Induction

8) Mutual Inductance due to a pair of circuits

9) Transformer: practical application of Mutual Inductance

> equations for transformer

10) Induction Coil

This chapter teaches about some of the practical devices that work on Alternating current (AC) and Direct Current (DC).

We show how an AC waveform looks, and circular motion equivalence to wave motion. An animation of a rotating turbine wheel in a hydraulic dam as the water falls, helps to understand how we get the AC upto our homes. Many more animations are presented to give a crystal clear grasp and confidence in the working principle of Generators, Motors, Transformers, as well as AC circuits like R, C, L, CR, LR and LCR circuits.

1) Waveform for a current varying with time - what is it

2) A rotating pointer and AC Waveform

3) Fleming's Left Hand Rule (for DC Motors) and Right hand Rule (for Generators)

> applied to a conductor LOOP

4) DC Motor

5) AC Generator

6) DC Dynamo : a DC Generator

This course explains that Light also travels through space as an electromagnetic wave (like X-Rays and so on). This was a stupendous scientific discovery. Previous to this, it could not be imagined how Light has anything to do with electricity and magnetism. Even today, it's a difficult for many to understand this.

1) get a feel for Electromagnetic waves

2) basic Equation for Electromagnetic waves

3) Maxwell's displacement current (adding to Ampere's law)

> for a simple wire

> for a capacitor circuit (parallel plate type)

4) Four fundamental equations for Electromagnetic Waves, Electricty and Magnetism

5) Energy density of an electromagnetic wave

6) Electromagnetic Spectrum

This course has images and animations to explain current flow through vacuum or gases at low pressure , such as in cathode ray tubes etc.

1) Electric Discharge through gases at low pressure

2) Paschen's Law for minimum Sparking Voltage in a discharge tube

3) Cathode Rays

4) Properties of Cathode Rays

5) Thermionic Emission and Work Function for a metal

The photoelectric effect reopened the debate among scientists , whether Light is a Particle or a Wave. The story started with newton describing Light as a particle in his Corpuscular Theory of Light, then Refraction and Diffraction phenomena were found later which indicated that Light should be a Wave. However, when the Photoelectric Effect was discovered and explained by Einstein, it could be better explained only if light behaves like a Particle. Einstein then came up with the Quantum Theory of Light, where each "particle" is thought of as a small packet of energy, called Quanta. Thus, Light and Energy meant one and the same thing.

1) Photon theory of light

2) Photoelectric Effect, Work Function, Energy concept of Light

3) Planck constant

4) Work Function

> what is eV , how is it a unit of energy of light quanta

5) Threshold Frequency (threshold wavelength)

We have created representative 3D models, images and animations to help understand clearly the various theories given by scientists about Atoms (how things work, inside atoms). They suggested what they thought would be the best explanation, and they had a huge constraint :- they could only infer from various experiments but could'nt physically look at atoms and certainly could not see inside the atom. Each theory is called a 'model' , like a toy. This is a story of scientists' search for the smallest particle in nature.

1) Introduction: what exactly is meant by 'Atomic Model' ?

2) Rutherford model

> Alpha Particle Scattering Experiment

> Idea of Nucleus as the center of an atom

> Which phenomena the model could explain

> Which phenomena the model could NOT explain

3) Hydrogen Atom and its spectrum

4) Bohr model

> Which phenomena it could NOT explain

5) Valence Shell Theory :- s,p,d and f orbitals

6) Electron Cloud model : "electrons are waves"

We have created interesting and clear animations to explain how X-rays are formed.

1) What are X-Rays, how are they produced?

> Overall Energy picture: from Visible Light to X-Rays to Gamma Rays

2) Looking inside the Tungsten Atom: why are X-rays produced?

3) Continuous Type and Characteristic Type X-rays

> Graph: Intensity versus Wavelength of X-Rays

> Electrons Transition : K,L,M,N shells

4) Characteristic type X-rays due to Electron Transition

5) Equation: wavelength of X-rays for Continuous Type X-Rays

6) Moseley's Law: it changed the way the Periodic Table was written

7) Solved problem

Semiconductors are at the heart of electronics devices and things like mobiles which we use today. It's a tough topic to understand but we have made it as simple as possible, with creative animations, 3D models and images.

1) Why is it called 'semi' conductor?

2) gadgets having semiconductors

3) About Conductivity

4) Energy Bands in solids: Conduction band and Valence band

5) About Semiconductors: holes and electron movements

6) p-n junction

> Diffusion current

> Biasing a p-n junction : Forward and Reverse Bias

7) p-n junction Diode

8) p-n junction as a Rectifier

9) Transistors - comparing with the older Triodes

10) Transistors: a sandwitch of P-N-P and N-P-N

> N-P-N transistor: how it works

> Symbol and circuit diagram

11) P-N-P Transistor

12) Transistor Symbols: Emitter and Colelctor positions - the easy way - for NPN and PNP

13) Biasing of Transistors, and Thermal runaway

> Beta dependent and beta-independent types of biasing

14) Solved problems

This course explains nuclear forces.

1) What is a nucleus

> Atomic number and Mass number

2) Size and Shape of a nucleus

3) Nuclear Forces : to keep a nucleus together

4) Radioactive decay

a) Alpha decay

b) 'Beta Minus' decay

c) 'Beta Plus' decay

d) Gamma decay

The story of the universe and how we see it is in this chapter. We have made representative animations and videos to explain in a simplest way possible, two of the most profound theories of science, discovered by Dr.Albert Einstein. We are quite confident you will find our explanation convincing , logical and easy to grasp.

1) Frames of Reference: a) Inertial, b) Non-Inertial, and The Special Theory of Relativity

2) Coriolis Force : a fictitious force under Newton's Laws

3) Time Dilation: moving clocks due to Relative Velocity only

4) Time Dilation: due to Gravitational Effects

5) Mass-Energy equivalence, Einstein's famous equation

6) A body's Rest Mass and Mass while moving

7) The Mass of Light

8) Energy and Momentum

9) TWINS Paradox : why one twin will look younger than the other

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